I would like to see some of this applied to forestry. The leading ecological threats today are invasive species and native species made functionally invasive by environmental change. We have seen near total destruction of the American chestnut, which once made up around 1/3 of the eastern forest. We are experiencing oak wilt, hemlock investigation, emerald ash borers, scale insects on white pine … I could go on with the depressing litany, but suffice it to say that there is no possibility of cultivating forests on a large scale the way farmers can do fields.

If we are going to save our forests, we need all the tools, including GMOs. We would not introduce them forest wide. What about something that did to the ash borer what the GT corn does to the corn borer? It takes a long time in forestry, so we need to start yesterday. I do not expect a panacea, but in the Anthropocene, GMOs are a key tool in maintaining ecological diversity of our forests.

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